This page lists the sources we used, as well as other resources that we couldn't secure the rights to reproduce.

Adams, Frederick. Conquest of the Tropics. Garden City, Doubleday, Page & Company, 1914.

Allcock, Thomas Tunstall. “The First Alliance for Progress?: Reshaping the Eisenhower Administration’s Policy toward Latin America.” Journal of Cold War Studies 16, no. 1 (2014): 85–110.

Associated Press. “Guard Units Seize Control of Government in Panama.” The Daily Telegram (Eau Claire, WI), October 12, 1968. Newspaper Archive.

Barbero, María Inés. “Business History in Latin America: A Historiographical Perspective.” The Business History Review 82, no. 3 (2008): 555–75.

Bignon, Vincent, Rui Esteves, and Alfonso Herranz-Loncán. “Big Push or Big Grab? Railways, Government Activism, and Export Growth in Latin America, 1865-1913.” The Economic History Review 68, no. 4 (2015): 1277–1305.

Bird, Frederick. “The Ethical Responsibilities of Businesses in Developing Areas.” Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2009): 85–97.

Bourgois, Philippe. “One Hundred Years of United Fruit Company Letters.” In Banana Wars: Power, Production, and History in the Americas, edited by Steve Striffler and Mark Moberg, 103-144. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003.

Bucheli, Marcelo, and Min-Young Kim. “Political Institutional Change, Obsolescing Legitimacy, and Multinational Corporations: The Case of the Central American Banana Industry.” MIR: Management International Review 52, no. 6 (2012): 847–77.

Bucheli, Marcelo. “Enforcing Business Contracts in South America: The United Fruit Company and Colombian Banana Planters in the Twentieth Century.” The Business History Review 78, no. 2 (2004): 181–212.

Calhoun, C.H. “Central Americas Vary in Prospects.” New York Times, January 2, 1941, 41.

Capa, Cornell. “The Red Outpost in Central America.” LIFE, October 12, 1953, 169. Google Books.

Charles L. Franck Photographers. United Fruit Company, 321 Saint Charles Avenue. Photograph. The Historic New Orleans Collection. 1979.

Charles L. Franck Photographers. United Fruit Company. Photograph. The Historic New Orleans Collection. 1979.

Chomsky, Avi. “Afro-Jamaican Traditions and Labor Organizing on United Fruit Company Plantations in Costa Rica, 1910.” Journal of Social History 28, no. 4 (1995): 837–55.

Chomsky, Aviva. West Indian Workers and the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica, 1870-1940. Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Christiansen, Isaac. “Linkages Between Economic and Military Imperialism.” World Review of Political Economy 11, no. 3 (2020): 337–56.

Clegg, Peter, and Timothy Shaw. The Caribbean Banana Trade: From Colonialism to Globalization. London: Palgrave-McMillan, 2002.

Colby, Jason M. “‘Banana Growing and Negro Management’: Race, Labor, and Jim Crow Colonialism in Guatemala, 1884–1930.” Diplomatic History 30, no. 4 (2006): 595–621.

Colby, Jason M. “Race, Empire, and New England Capital in the Caribbean, 1890-1930.” Massachusetts Historical Review 11 (2009): 1–25.

Department of Research, United Fruit Company. Problems and Progress in Banana Disease Research. Boston, MA, 1958.

Dosal, Paul. Doing Business with Dictators: A Political History of United Fruit in Guatemala, 1899-1945. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 1995.

Eisenhower Presidential Library. “United Fruit Company.” Accessed December 27, 2021.

“Eli Black’s Funeral Attended by 500.” New York Times, February 6, 1975. ProQuest.

“Eli Black’s Rites Attended by 500: United Brands Head Hailed for Wide Ranging Efforts.” The New York Times, February 6, 1975.

Getchell, Michelle Denise. “Revisiting the 1954 Coup in Guatemala: The Soviet Union, the United Nations, and ‘Hemispheric Solidarity.’” Journal of Cold War Studies 17, no. 2 (2015): 73–102.

“Great White Fleet- United Fruit Company.” Card. [ca. 1896–1980]. Digital Commonwealth, (accessed December 22, 2021).

“Guatemala Under Military Junta as Unrest Forces President Out.” New York Times, July 2, 1944, 7.

“Guatemalans are in Revolt, Mexico Hears, Against Ubico, Chief of ‘Dictators’ League.'” New York Times, January 7, 1938, 1.

Harker, Mary Margaret. Henry Meiggs: A Railroad Builder of Chile and Peru. University of Southern California, May 18, 1931. University of Southern California Digital Library.

Heinzen, Barbara J. “The United Fruit Company in the 1950s: Trusteeships of the Cameroons.” African Economic History, no. 12 (1983): 141–56.

Huntington, Daniel. Banana Plant. Painting. Cooper Hewitt. 1885.

Jones, Geoffrey. “The Controversial History of United Fruit.” Cold Call. July 2, 2019. Podcast, 21:40.

Kepner, Charles, Jr. and Jay Soothill. The Banana Empire: A Case Study of Economic Imperialism. New York: Vanguard Press, 1935.

Kihss, Peter. “44-Story Plunge Kills Head of United Brands.” The New York Times, February 4, 1975.

Kilborn, Peter T. “Suicide of Big Executive: Stress of Corporate Life.” New York Times, February 14, 1975. ProQuest.

Kobler, John. “Sam the Banana Man.” LIFE, February 19, 1951. Google Books.

Koeppel, Dan. Banana: The Fate of the Fruit that Changed the World. New York: Hudson Street, 2007.

Langley, Lester, and Thomas Schoonover. The Banana Men: American Mercenaries and Entrepreneurs in Central America, 1880-1930. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1995.

Langley, Lester. The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898-1934. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.

Lockling, Gerald. “‘One Hundred Years’ Vitally Alive.” Press-Telegram (Long Beach, CA), April 10, 1970. Newspaper Archive.

Maloney, Russell, and Rosann Smith. “Navy Cook.” New Yorker, March 25, 1944, 21-25. New Yorker Archives.

Marquardt, Steve. “‘Green Havoc’: Panama Disease, Environmental Change, and Labor Process in the Central American Banana Industry.” The American Historical Review 106, no. 1 (2001): 49–80.

May, Stacy and Galo Plaza. The United Fruit Company in Latin America. Washington DC: National Planning Association, 1957.

McCann, Thomas. An American Company: The Tragedy of United Fruit. New York: Crown Publishing, 1976.

M.C.H. “Out of Town.” New Yorker, May 19, 1934, 62. New Yorker Archives.

Morey, Lindsey. “Blood For Bananas: United Fruit’s Central American Empire.” Washington State University. 2014.

Márquez, Gabriel García. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Translated by Gregory Rabassa. New York, NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 2006.

National Security Council Planning Board. “Report Prepared by the National Security Council Planning Board.” US Department of State Office of the Historian. June 3, 1953.

Pan Am Historical Foundation. “Pan Am Building.” The Pan Am Historical Foundation. Accessed December 21, 2021,

Phillips, R. Hart. “Castro Increasing Pressure on U.S. Sugar Mills in Cuba.” New York Times, April 2, 1960.

Phillips, R. Hart. “Castro’s Victory Lifts Cuba’s Hope.” New York Times, January 14, 1959.

“Price of Bananas Cut, Owing to Poor Trade.” New York Times, March 8, 1931.

Putnam, Lara. The Company They Kept: Migrants and the Politics of Gender in Caribbean Costa Rica, 1870-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Shragai, Atalia. “Do Bananas Have a Culture? United Fruit Company Colonies in Central America 1900-1960.” Iberoamericana (2001-) 11, no. 42 (2011): 65–82.

Soluri, John. “Accounting for Taste: Export Bananas, Mass Markets, and Panama Disease.” Environmental History 7, no. 3 (2002): 386–410.

Streeter, Stephen M. “Interpreting the 1954 U.S. Intervention in Guatemala: Realist, Revisionist, and Postrevisionist Perspectives.” The History Teacher 34, no. 1 (2000): 61–74.

Striffler, Steve and Mark Moberg, eds. Banana Wars: Power, Production and History in the Americas. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

United Fruit Company. “About Bananas.” 1935. Video, 11:04.

United Fruit Company. “Chiquita Banana.” 1947. Video advertisement, 1:24.

United Fruit Company. 1950. Chiquita Banana’s Recipe Book. New York, N.Y.: United Fruit.

United Fruit Company. 1931. The New Banana. New York: Fruit Dispatch.

United Fruit Company. “First ‘Victory’ Built on Atlantic Coast.” New Yorker, December 16, 1944. New Yorker Archive.

United Fruit Company, “For Your Summer Vacation.” LIFE. April 12, 1937. Google Books.

United Fruit Company. “Journey to Banana Land.” 1950. Video advertisement, 20:48.

“United Fruit Company Photograph Collection, 1891–1962.” Baker Library Historical Collections. Accessed December 27, 2021.

United Fruit Company. “Whole Stole the Banana?” The New Yorker, June 30, 1956. New Yorker Archives.

“United Fruit Plea up in Guatemala.” New York Times, October 29, 1954.

Washington Banana Museum. “The Washington Banana Museum: Auburn, Washington: An Online Museum.” Accessed December 22, 2021.

Wilson, Charles Morrow. “A Vital Interdependence Between United States and Middle America is Seen.” Fairfield Daily Ledger (Fairfield, IA), July 22, 1942, 4. Newspaper Archive.

Ybarra, T.R. “Honduras Warring on Banana Blight.” New York Times, February 26, 1939, 31.

Zingales, Luigi. “Towards a Political Theory of the Firm.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 31, no. 3 (2017): 113–30.

Zumoff, J. A. “Black Caribbean Labor Radicalism in Panama, 1914-1921.” Journal of Social History 47, no. 2 (2013): 429–57.